By Trevor I. Williams
Read Online or Download A History of Technology. Volume VII, The Twentieth Century, c. 1900 to c. 1950. Part II PDF
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Additional resources for A History of Technology. Volume VII, The Twentieth Century, c. 1900 to c. 1950. Part II
TYPES DESI GN' time immemorial wood was the only material used in shipbuilding because it was readily available throughout the world and was easily worked with simple hand tools. Wooden ships were transversely framed and covered by planks which were fixed to the wooden frames by bolts or screws of copper, iron, or steel. Although their subdivision was poor and their stability often inadequate some wooden ships were still being built at the end of the nineteenth century (Fig. 1). Generally speaking, however, their history belongs to earlier volumes of this work.
The hi«h superheat ‘George the Fifth’ class 4-4-0 of 1910 by C. J. Bowen Cooke exemplified by the London and North Western Railway’s C o r o n a tio n engine of 1911. augmentation of the dead load on the axle— a ‘hammer-blow’ effect. In cer tain of the simplest types of locomotive, with two inside cylinders, this could be as much as a 50 per cent addition to the dead load. Hammer-blow could, however, be eliminated entirely by using four cylinders, all driving on to the same axle, and by the introduction of this principle the Dutch civil engineers were able to accept larger locomotives, with a greater axle-load than the previous two-cylinder types.
U. Taken in conjunction with improvements in resistance and propulsion this means that the efficiency of marine propulsion as a whole improved about eight-fold during those 50 years. In 1950 approximately 30 per cent, by gross tonnage, of world merchant ships were driven by diesel engines. Steam turbines and diesel engines are now being slowly replaced, almost exclusively in warships, by gas turbines and— in a very few instances— nuclear-powered machinery. The gas turbine system, which eliminates the need for steam as a transfer medium, has been slowly developed for marine use.