By Lutz Hasse (auth.), Peter S. Liss, W. George N. Slinn (eds.)
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Extra resources for Air-Sea Exchange of Gases and Particles
The difference (37 units, which is of order 10% of the total evaporation) is carried over land. Over land 65 units are evaporated, and 102 are 3precipitated. With a water content of the atmosphere of 12400 km and a total precipitation rate of 513 units, the average residence time of water vapor in the atmosphere is about nine days. 23 INTRODUCTORY METEOROLOGY AND FLUID DYNAMICS 3. SYNOPTIC SCALE CIRCULATIONS The trade winds of the tropical seas are the most persistent wind systems of the atmosphere.
Hence the sinking motion is by a factor of 10 or 20 smaller than the upward motion. The sign of the net mass flux is determined by the largescale convergence or divergence. \. _ _ MIGRATION ROLL WAVELENGTH Figure 21. Perspective schematic presentation of helical vortices and cloud streets. (Adapted from LeMone, 1972. ) INTRODUCTORY METEOROLOGY AND FLUID DYNAMICS 35 6. TURBULENCE AND THE PLANETARY BOUNDARY LAYER The different properties of the surface (land, sea), compared to the air,have a strong influence on atmospheric flow ;nd other properties near the surface.
Haugen, 1973). The Ri-number and similar numbers measure the rate of work done by or against the buoyant forces versus the rate of shear-production of turbulent energy (unstable, Ri < 0; stable, Ri > 0). Except for a very thin layer (a few millimeters deep) at the surface, where the influence of the molecular viscosity is felt, the motions in the atmosphere are always turbulent. Turbulence is very active as a transporting agent. This is seen when, by analogy to the molecular transport, the turbulent transport is described by aid of an eddy diffusivity K INTRODUCTORY METEOROLOGY AND FLUID DYNAMICS F Paz = - K 3mr 37 (12) where F is the flux of a certain property and mr is its mixing ratio Ikg/kgl.